IGBT is the abbreviation for "Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor." It is a voltage drive device with a MOS gate that achieves low-ON voltage through hole injection via the collector zone.
RC-IGBT is the abbreviation for "Reverse Conducting-IGBT." It is an integrated element that has both IGBT and diode functions. In the majority of cases, IGBT and diode are used in inverse-parallel connection, therefore the application of an RC-IGBT which consolidates IGBT and diode into one element offers advantages such as downsizing and reduces mounting costs compared to the conventional IGBT/diode inverse-parallel connection.
No, overmodulation cannot be calculated using Melcosim. Melcosim essentially uses three-phase modulation as the modulation rate, therefore users can perform comparison studies as the same output voltage even for space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and two-phase modulation as long as the modulation rate is the same. (For SVPWM and two phase modulation, an output voltage 2/√3＝1.1547 higher than three phase modulation is obtained, therefore a modulation rate of up to 1.1547 can be designated when SVPWM or two phase modulation is selected.)
It depends on the product, so please inquire on an individual basis.
We only sell such chip-state/wafer-state products on a custom-made basis.
Please contact us on an individual basis.
Please refer to the application notes for this information.
Parameters are explained in detail in the application notes, so please refer to the application notes that apply to your product of interest.
The maximum rating is the value that establishes either the limiting function or the limiting condition (maximum or minimum value) of the electronic device. This is determined depending on the value designated by the environment or operation. As such, it is not possible to use an IGBT module either above the maximum value or below the minimum value.
SOA standards for “Safe Operating Area,” and indicates the absolute upper limit that cannot be exceeded in the operation mode for any of the below devices. Please be sure to sufficiently confirm each SOA and not exceed the SOA spec after securing an appropriate margin in the applicable conditions and design. This margin must cover all the possibilities in all three SOAs, including tolerance and overload conditions for application. Some of the products do not feature (a portion) of the below regulations. ・Reverse Bias Safe Operating Area (RBSOA): IGBT's turn-off capability limit ・Reverse Recovery Safe Operating Area (RRSOA): Limitation on free-wheeling diodes during reverse recovery ・Short Circuit Safety Operating Area (SCSOA): IGBT's turn-off capability limit under short-circuit conditions
IGBT modules and IPMs do not have an explosion-proof structure. As such, if the chip inside the power module is damaged and an arm short circuit occurs, in cases where system back power is large, there will be fusing of the aluminum wire and the energy emitted at that time will distort/damage the exterior of the power module. In some cases, this could cause the constituent materials to scatter around the proximity (explode). IPMs have a built-in short circuit protection circuit and if this is set correctly it is possible to prevent chip damage even when a short circuit occurs, however the protection scope may be limited depending on the protection function constituting the outside of the power module (Desat, etc.). If a possibility of power module breakage is assumed, there is a need to take preventive measures such as adding a circuit to isolate back power or designing a structure where the scatter range is limited in the event of module breakage.
Be sure to use grease with good thermal conductivity. When attaching a module to a heatsink, adhesion will notably deteriorate if grease is not used and cause the thermal resistance to increase. Some products are coated with thermal grease (PC-TIM) upon shipment.
You don't need to wait a certain period of time between temporary tightening and full tightening. The purpose of temporary tightening and full tightening is to prevent PCB splitting by achieving uniform contact of the module base plate relative to the heat dissipating fin (via the thermal grease). Power modules are normally attached to the heat dissipating fin with several screws, however if the screws are tightened with the specified tightening torque from the outset, then the portions where the screws haven’t been tightened will lift up or “float,” which would result in the module base plate being tilted relative to the heat dissipating fin after the second screw onwards is tightened, and ultimately non-uniform cooling (heat dissipation). As such, we recommend attaching in the two stages of “temporary tightening” and “full tightening” by temporarily tightening all screws at around 20% or less than the specified torque so that the module base plate and heat dissipating fin are practically parallel, then achieving the ideal contact state by fully tightening all screws at the specified torque.
LTDS is the abbreviation for "Long Term DC Stability" and refers to tolerance to accidental failure caused by cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are a general term for radiation that falls from space, including secondary cosmic rays that fly through space or are generated by interference with the atmosphere. The neutrons in this radiation are said to be the cause of breakdowns.
The temperature and humidity in the area where power modules are stored should be within the normal room temperature and humidity range of 5 to 35°C and 45 to 75%. Environments that vary extremely from these temperatures and humidity levels may degrade performance and reliability.
If possible, it is preferrable to do so. "Retightening" is intended to reapply the specified tightening torque in order to maintain proper contact conditions when heat or vibration is generated by operating the equipment in which the module is installed, which may cause the screws to loosen. Therefore, it is effective to perform retightening after the module has been subjected to heat or vibration by operating equipment or other devices to which it is attached.
Normally, the below equation is used to express IGBT dead time.
ｔ(dead) ≧ tdoff(max) + tf(max)
Switching time differs depending on circuit conditions, therefore it is essential to confirm the status under actual operating conditions when setting dead time. IPM/DIPIPM have a built-in power element drive circuit in their power module, therefore there is a need to also consider circuit delay. Mitsubishi Electric sets the recommended dead time value after confirming that short circuits do not occur within the recommended IPM/DIPIPM operating range.
The pulse width shown in the standards conditions is the gate ON pulse width. The short circuit safety operating area at a time of 10 μs is guaranteed under the voltage, current, and circuit conditions defined in the data sheets. In other words, short-circuit withstand capability is specified and guaranteed as the condition under which no energy breakdown occurs in the device, so please consider not only the time width of 10 μs but also the amount of power (current x voltage x time) when a short circuit occurs. tw differs between products so please check the details on the individual data sheet and application notes.
Click "Product Search" at the bottom of each page for power devices to display product categories. Check the appropriate product group from the following three types: Power Modules, High Power Devices, and HVIC. A filter condition input screen will appear. Check "Not recommended for new designs" and "Discontinued" under "Supply situation", enter information such as "Model number", and then click "Search". You will find the applicable products.
We have set the below definitions regarding the repeatability/non-repeatability of energization. Repeatability: Energization is performed again before the junction temperature drops all the way. Non-repeatability: Energization is performed again after the junction temperature drops to what it was before the first energization. In line with this definition, a rating for ±ICP is guaranteed at a repeatability of 1 ms or less. However, even if ±ICP or less, or energization is only performed once, you may be operating the product outside the guaranteed parameters if other maximum ratings such as “Tjmax: maximum junction temperature” or “TC: operating module temperature” exceed their respective ratings specified in the standards. Moreover, frequently applying a large current is expected to create large temperature ripples, so please sufficiently consider life failure.
It is possible to use if the period exceeding ±IC is within the ±ICP rating and conditions. Mitsubishi Electric defines the maximum ratings for its products and designs within these regulations to ensure quality and reliability. Because our products are designed to satisfy the high quality requirements of the market, there are not many cases of failure or damage even if used above the maximum ratings depending on the customers’ operating environment or conditions, however such cases would be outside the scope of Mitsubishi Electric’s guarantee. Moreover, frequently applying a large current is expected to create large temperature ripples, so please sufficiently consider life failure. Mitsubishi Electric does not deny requests to expand the warranty coverage under the customer's individual usage conditions, and will listen to the customer's specific requests as a custom product development project, then consider the business potential.
The ±IC and ±ICP values indicate the ratings for DC energization. Meanwhile, IOP indicates the peak current of sinusoidal output current. Due to overall restrictions as well as power chips of power device components, ±IC and ±ICP are defined as DC current ratings for the applicable product, and AC current (IO = IOP/√2 Arms for sinusoidal wave) ratings are also shown. Even when using within the current rating, use within the range of other maximum ratings such as temperature ratings, etc., and consider the life of the product.
If you are not using VOT, please make it NC (No Connection). Since the operational amplifier output in the DIPIPM is connected to the VOT pin, the circuit current of the DIPIPM increases when directly connected to the control GND or control power supply.
You can use the product by shorting the NC terminal with the P terminal. The said NC pin is not connected to anything internally. However, we do not inspect the withstand voltage or insulation between the NC terminal and other terminals upon shipment.
For the VOT (analog temperature output) of the DIPIPM, the temperature of the built-in LVIC is detected. If the temperature of the DIPIPM rises gradually, temperature protection is possible by controlling the DIPIPM with consideration to the temperature correlation between the junction temperature Tj and the LVIC temperature TIC. However, if the junction temperature Tj rises suddenly due to a short circuit or overcurrent, the temperature difference between Tj and TIC will increase instantaneously, and the junction temperature Tj may exceed the maximum rating before VOT rises, thus resulting in breakage.
The tracking property of DIPIPM resin (CTI value) is PLC* Grade 1 400≦CTI＜600 * Performance Level Category This may differ for past model types, so please check the details with the sales representative.
The 2.5mm pin spacing for DIPIPM 600V withstand voltage is based on J60335-1 (operating voltage : 130V to 250V), and satisfies the latest standard (same as IEC60335-1 : 2010 version) which requires 1.5mm or more. However, some users often require 2.5mm as an in-house regulation, so we currently use 2.5mm as an index when designing pin-to-pin distance for 600V DIPIPMs.
Points to note regarding land shape are as follows: (1) Drill a round hole about 0.2 mm laeger than the diagonal of the square pin lead to make a land that will not cause pattern breakage. (2) Please make sure to secure the distance along the pattern and install slits between the patterns if necessary. We also have other evaluation boards for your reference. Please design the final product according to your company's standards.
In the DIPIPM appearance standard, any discoloration derived from the oxide film of the copper foil is acceptable. For the SLIMDIP, Super Mini, Mini and other packages, copper is exposed on the heat dissipation surface. When copper products are stored in the atmosphere, an extremely thin oxide film forms on the surface. This oxide film becomes thinner the more interference there is with light wavelengths, and may be various different colors depending on the conditions at the time of oxidization. Oxide film is very thin (in the order of nm), therefore it is difficult to control the color tone due to oxidization, or more specifically, the oxide film thickness. Because the oxide film is extremely thin, it will not affect the product’s thermal resistance. Moreover, the oxide film is extremely robust and highly safe, therefore regardless of the color tone, it will not affect DIPIPM characteristics, long-term usage, or other reliability aspects.
The DIPIPM’s product model name is shown on the side that is mounted with the PCB, so will not be visible once mounted. There is the option of making a hole so that a portion of the model name of the DIPIPM-mounted PCB is visible. The actual marking location of the product name differs between packages and series, so please see the application notes for details. In the case of the SLIMDIP Series it is possible to identify the product with the "L" of "SLIMDIP-L", therefore confirmation is possible through a hole in the PCB such as the mounting screw.
If performing short-circuit detection with an external circuit rather than using a VSC terminal, please perform pull-down with a resistance larger than the prescribed sensing resistance. The sensing resistance differs between products, so please see the application notes for details. If using the CIN terminal to operate the SC protection circuit of the DIPIPM, the lower arm IGBT can be isolated by applying a signal to the CIN terminal upon short-circuit detection. If you detect a current with an external shunt resistor, apply 1 V or more (up to 5 V) to the CIN terminal using a comparator, etc. Also, if the voltage of the shunt resistor is high, the IGBT’s energization capability will decrease, so please set the resistance so that the shunt resistor’s voltage drop is around 0.5 V.
Various materials are used for coating and potting, therefore please judge whether or not to perform coating or potting after sufficiently evaluating and confirming using the resin you normally use. E.g.) Does heat dissipation capability decrease when the resin penetrates between the DIPIPM and the heatsink? Is DIPIPM subjected to significant stress due to thermal expansion/shrinkage of the resin?
Thermal resistance is the maximum value shown in the data sheet, taking into account material and manufacturing variations. To ensure safe use of our products, we recommend that customers approach their thermal design with consideration of the maximum thermal resistance value.
The 2D code is for our internal use only and cannot be used for product tracing by the customer.
We have prepared manuals for each evaluation board, so please contact us for details.
It takes only a few µs for the DIPIPM to break after a power supply short circuit occurs. Fuse blow times are typically in the order of ms, therefore they cannot protect DIPIPMs. However, it can be useful to include a fuse in order to limit the extent to which the semiconductor is affected by subsequent current after it breaks down. Generally, a fuse is placed in the AC line in accordance with safety standards, but a fuse for DC may be placed between the electrolytic capacitor and the DIPIPM to minimize DIPIPM breakdown due to the positive charge of the smoothing capacitor (electrolytic capacitor) in the DC bus bar.
Depending on the advancement of power elements, the waveform (particularly tail current) at the time of switching changes. Since the tail current has been shortened, the cutoff at turn-off is improved. This can be understood from the fact that the standard maximum value of tc(off) can be set to a small value. Tail current is a characteristic item that should be taken into account when setting the dead time, since it accounts for a large portion of the switching loss and is temperature dependent (tends to increase at higher temperatures).
If a pulse shorter than the minimum PWIN (on) and PWIN (off) standard values of the recommended operating conditions is input, the output may not respond and DIPIPM may not react. Also, depending on the product type, turn-on may be delayed even if it does respond.
We have performed a JEITA-regulated reliability test at 175℃ and all models passed without any issues. However, the physical resin to glass transition temperature is lower than 175℃, therefore just because our products pass internationally-regulated reliability tests, it does not mean that we can unconditionally say, "Please use it with confidence.'' Many DIPIPMs are used for a wide variety of customers, applications, and regions, and have a track record of extremely low market failure rates. However, at this time we do not have a market record of long-term use at 175℃, which exceeds the glass transition temperature of resin. Hence, the maximum junction temperature rating is expressed as "instantaneous" assuming an overload, etc. If the results of the abovementioned reliability tests are necessary, we can provide you with a report. Please use your judgment from the perspective of securing reliability as to whether or not the product can be used in temperatures exceeding 150℃ up to a maximum of 175℃.
MSL (moisture sensitivity level) is an index relating to moisture absorption and is primarily used for surface mounted components for which reflow soldering is performed. MSL indicates the storage conditions of such components in order to prevent external damage due to expansion by reflow-induced internal moisture. As reflow soldering is not possible on DIPIPM, we have not set an MSL. SOPIPM is a surface mounted-type, therefore is equivalent to JEDEC MSL3.
Please connect the CIN terminal to the control GND. Make the pull-down connection for the VSC terminal equal to or greater than our recommended sensing resistance.
When used in parallel connection, current imbalance may occur due to variation in DC characteristics and SW characteristics (IC/IGBT delay time, pattern-related issues), causing a large current to flow through a portion of the chip, thus resulting in overcurrent failure. We also do not recommend using software to correct SW variation due to the high technical hurdles involved.
The Zener diode we recommend/propose is not intended to stabilize control power source voltage but rather protect against surge exceeding the voltage rating (short external overvoltage noise pulse). We recommend Vz = 24 V Zener diodes supported by actual experiment results obtained with an awareness that the objective is surge absorption and with consideration to variation and temperature characteristics. Moreover, if the allowable loss of the Zener diode is small, the Zener voltage easily rises once it becomes energized and surge absorption capability decreases, therefore we recommend 1W.
In the assembly process of electrical circuit boards, we encountered a problem when soldering DIPIPMs after attaching heat-dissipating fins to them whereby, if the terminals were too wide, heat would escape to the heatsink during soldering. As such, we decided to narrow the width in the early stages of development. As Super Mini DIPIPM become increasingly popular, there is a broader understanding that the product is still completely reliable even if it is used to the limits of its performance, so it seems more customers are using DIPIPM at a high energization current. With the awareness that soldering performance is a trade-off issue, we made the decision to increase the terminal width for the Super Mini DIPIPM Ver. 7. When replacing conventional Super Mini DIPIPMs, please check the solderability of the DIPIPM carefully, as the temperature rise of the DIPIPM terminals when energized is lower, however solderability may be reduced.
The terminal plating thickness is 10 µm (typ.).
There are many advantages to integrating a power chip and control and protection circuits in a single package like DIPIPM. ・Temperature and condition can be monitored by the built-in IC to provide fast and reliable protection, and the short-circuit withstand capability can be set short. ・Since there is a trade-off between short-circuit withstand capability and loss, DIPIPMs have lower loss than IGBT modules. ・There is no need to build control and protection circuits, verify gate drive capability, or investigate dV/dt withstand capacity. Our concept is "Just connect and use," so quality improvement can be anticipated.
With the DESAT method, the protection range is quite limited, but it is used for IGBT modules as a relatively simple method. External protection is necessary for IGBT modules that handle large currents, and such protection is time-consuming, therefore the short-circuit withstand capability is set high. As such, a current sensor or DESAT is used in many cases. In addition, the shunt method generates heat due to losses in the shunt resistor, making it unsuitable for high-current applications such as IGBT modules due to its high heat generation.
We are very aware of the strong demand to reduce dead time, however please set the dead time in line with the recommended operating conditions. We are engaging in various activities to shorten dead time, such as adjusting ton/toff, reducing tail current, etc., however have set a recommended dead time whereby variability is also considered, no short circuits occur in the upper/lower arms within the temperature range, and switching loss does not increase, so that you may use our products with peace of mind.
We have confirmed that there is no problem up to ±4 kV by installing an absorber and using a planar heatsink. However, this varies depending on the peripheral circuit, heatsink shape, and whether or not there is an insulative sheet, so please confirm in your specific operating environment.
We offer the J1-Series.
This is a module developed as the inverter that controls motors which relates to the running, turning, and stopping of a vehicle. Since Mitsubishi Electric became the first in the world to use our automotive power semiconductor on a hybrid vehicle in 1997, we began mass production of this product, and the J1-Series was developed for general applications based on that technology. It is an IGBT module with higher reliability developed based on the IGBT module for industrial use. For details, please see the application notes for the J1-Series.
Tests are conducted in accordance with IEC, JEITA, and AQG324 reliability guidelines.
J1-Series is equipped with a 7th generation IGBT adopting a CSTBTTM structure, thus reducing saturation voltage between the collector and emitter compared to our conventional J-Series and contributing to lower power consumption. Moreover, it features a direct water cooling structure with an integrated cooling fin, therefore has a 40% greater heat dissipation capability compared to our conventional J-Series, and contributes to the downsizing and higher reliability of inverters for automotive use. By shifting to a 6in1, the mounting surface area is smaller than when three 2in1 products are used, therefore facilitating the downsizing of inverters.
By adopting a structure that has a trench gate added to the load accumulation layer (CSTBTTM), there is better trade-off performance between the turn off energy (Eoff) and collector/emitter saturation voltage (VCEsat). Moreover, by using an on-chip temperature sensor diode in the center of the IGBT, it is possible to directly measure Tvj. An on-chip current sensor is also used.
Refer to the product data sheet for details.
Tvj is calculated based on the measurement voltage of the on-chip temperature sensor.
In sensing resistance connected between the current sensor output terminal and control terminal emitter, current sensor output is converted to voltage and used in overcurrent protection, etc.
It is possible to prevent erroneous operations caused by fluctuation of input/control system power sources and ground thermal displacement by separating the input/control systems which input gate drive signals and analog signals from IGBT on-chip sensor output, etc. from the output system which inputs/outputs relative high currents of several ten to several hundred mA.
In inverter circuits, etc., it is necessary to provide a dead time for the upper and lower arms in the drive signal sequence to prevent a short circuit between them.
By using our gate driver, IC M8160xJFP, one of the protection functions (OC, SC, UV, OT) will activate and Fo will be outputted.
Information on the transient thermal impedance is provided in the J1-Series data sheet.
The data sheet contains information on measurement circuits and measurement conditions.
The model name includes information on the module type, current rating, connection, package type, voltage rating, and series.
An example is provided below. Please refer to the applicable application notes on your product for more details.
The value shown on the data sheet is the standard value and the minimum value. Please use a gate resistance equal to or greater than the value shown on the data sheet. Please keep in mind that a large gate resistance will increase switching loss. For details on the gate resistance dependency curve of switching loss, please see the characteristics curve on the data sheet.
For HVIGBTs, it is fine to include the internal resistance of MOSFETs and other semiconductors as the value of gate resistance RG. However, please be aware that the internal resistance of semiconductors varies depending on temperature and other factors.
Generally speaking, IGBTs have a characteristic of self-clamping voltage, however if you are using the drive and circuit conditions recommended for Mitsubishi Electric’s HVIGBT modules, it will not clamp at the static voltage or below. However, clamping at the static voltage or below may occur if operating the module at an excessive current reduction rate (-di/dt) or voltage rise rate (dv/dt). If this occurs, please check the drive and circuit conditions. Even if voltage clamping occurs, if the voltage clamping is non-repetitive and of very short duration, it will not adversely impact the breakdown capability of the element.